Vegetius explains how one should fortify and organize a camp, how to train troops, how to handle undisciplined troops, how to handle a battle engagement, how to march, formation gauge, and many other useful methods of promoting organization and valour in the legion. Despite this, Watson doubts its value, for Vegetius "was neither a historian nor a soldier: his work is a compilation carelessly constructed from material of all ages, a congeries of inconsistencies". The first book is a plea for army reform; it vividly portrays the military decadence of the Late Roman Empire. Vegetius also describes in detail the organisation training and equipment of the army of the early Empire.
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Dotaur All these were under the direction of the officer called the epiotma of the workmen. If they broke the enemy they never pursued them, least they should break their ranks or throw the line into confusion, and lest the enemy, taking advantage of their disorder, should return to the attack and destroy them without difficulty.
They should have corn, wine, vinegar, and even salt, in plenty at all times. They rested during the acnon on one knee, so that if the first lines were obliged to give way, they might be fresh when brought up to the charge, and thereby retrieve what was lost and recover the victory.
If it rained or snowed, they performed under cover; and ill fine weather, in the field. They must then be militsris to double the rank, which they must perform very quickly, and instantly cover their file leaders. For little can be expected from men militari have both the enemy and diseases to struggle with.
As a consequence they established schools of tactics for the instruction of youth in all the maneuvers of war. The legion owed its success, according to Vegetius, to its arms and its machines, as well militsris to the bravery of its soldiers. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. They are prepared and excited by some few mutineers, who hope to secure impunity for their crimes by the number of their associates.
In particular, he stresses the high standard of the legionaries and the excellence of the training and the officer corps. The officers who in action commanded the orders or divisions are called Ordinarii.
By these means the troops were provided with places of drill sheltered from bad weather. Epioma Iulii Frontini, viri consolaris, Strategematicon liber primus[-quartus]. These boats, joined and covered with planks, serve as bridges over unfordable rivers, on which both cavalry and infantry pass without danger.
The dimensions of the camps must be determined by the number of troops and quantity of baggage, that a large army may have room enough, and that a small one may not be obliged to extend itself beyond its proper ground.
It was the ancient regulation that practice marches of this distance must be made three times a month. These latter are now called supernumeraries. And if they do not comply with the order, proper rnglish are to appointed to compel them to do it. A sufficient number of spades, pickaxes, wicker baskets and tools of all kinds are to be provided for these works.
For the possessions of the subjects cannot be kept secure otherwise than by the defense of arms. The fifth book gives an account of the materiel and personnel of the Roman navy. The only method, therefore, that remains of recovering the ancient customs is by books, and by consulting the old historians.
The tenth consists of the same number of five hundred and fifty-five foot and sixty-six horse and requires good men, as it closes the left flank of the second line. The camp must not be commanded by any higher grounds from whence it might be insulted or annoyed by the enemy, nor must the location be liable to floods which would epittoma the army to great danger.
As it highly concerns us to guard against these inconveniences with prudence, so it would be inexcusible not to take advantage of an enemy that epittoma into them through ignorance or negligence. The Pamonian leather caps worn by our soldiers were formerly introduced with a different design. He insists upon the utmost meticulousness in drill. These messes were also called Maniples from their constant custom of fighting together in the same company or division.
Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus — Wikipedia The latest event alluded to in his Epitoma rei militaris is the death of the Emperor Gratian ; the earliest attestation of this work is a subscriptio by one Flavius Eutropius, writing in Constantinople in the yearwhich appears in one of two families of manuscripts, suggesting that a division of the manuscript tradition had already occurred. Cato the Elder, who was often Consul and always victorious at the head of the armies, believed he should do his country more essential service by writing on military affairs, than by all his exploits in the field.
Numerous manuscript copies of Vegetius circulated in the time of Charlemagne and one of rsi was considered a necessity of life by his commanders. The use of the common missile weapons and loaded javelins was another part of the drill strictly attended rdi. Some of the maxims may be mentioned here as illustrating the principles of a war for limited political objectives with which he deals:.
EPITOMA REI MILITARIS ENGLISH PDF
Sources[ edit ] Vegetius based his treatise on descriptions of Roman armies, especially those of the mid to late Republic. Vegetius explains how one should fortify and organise a camp, how to train troops, how to handle undisciplined troops, how to handle a battle engagement, how to march, formation gauge, and many other useful methods of promoting organisation and valour in the legion. The treatise is carefully laid out in subsections. They are organized into four books: Book I[ edit ] The first book, headed Primus liber electionem edocet iuniorum, ex quibus locis uel quales milites probandi sint aut quibus armorum exercitiis imbuendi, explains the selection of recruits, from which places and what kinds of men are soldiers to be authorised and with what exercises of arms they are to be indoctrinated. Vegetius also describes in detail the organisation, training and equipment of the army of the early Empire. Portraying the military decadence of the Late Roman Empire, it is a plea for army reform.
Epitoma rei militaris
The extant text dates to the 5th century. Vegetius emphasized things such as training of soldiers as a disciplined force, orderly strategy , maintenance of supply lines and logistics , quality leadership and use of tactics and even deceit to ensure advantage over the opposition. He was concerned about selection of good soldiers and recommended hard training of at least four months before the soldier was accepted into the ranks. The leader of the army dux had to take care of the men under his command and keep himself informed about the movements of the enemy to gain advantage in the battle. De re militari became a military guide in the Middle Ages.
De re militari explained
Dotaur All these were under the direction of the officer called the epiotma of the workmen. If they broke the enemy they never pursued them, least they should break their ranks or throw the line into confusion, and lest the enemy, taking advantage of their disorder, should return to the attack and destroy them without difficulty. They should have corn, wine, vinegar, and even salt, in plenty at all times. They rested during the acnon on one knee, so that if the first lines were obliged to give way, they might be fresh when brought up to the charge, and thereby retrieve what was lost and recover the victory. If it rained or snowed, they performed under cover; and ill fine weather, in the field. They must then be militsris to double the rank, which they must perform very quickly, and instantly cover their file leaders.
Vegetius: Epitoma rei militaris