Some no longer exist, others have been altered considerably, but fortunately the majority remains and have been photographed exclusively for 2G by the Japanese photographer Hiroshi Ueda. Introductory texts by David B. Stewart, Shin-Ichi Okuyama and Enric Massip provide the necessary context for understanding the work of this almost mythical architect. Lees meer Kazuo Shinohara has proved to be the most influential architect of his generation in shaping contemporary Japanese architecture. Nevertheless, his work remains little known in the West, partly due to the scarcity of publications on his work - which in turn was due to the rigorous control the architect maintained over publication of his work. This publication has only been possible after his death in , thanks to the generosity of the heirs.
|Published (Last):||27 March 2004|
|PDF File Size:||11.34 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||7.26 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
The keywords represent his conceptions and are directly taken from his vocabulary. Shinohara occasionally defines these keywords, using self-referential and self-reflexive means. Our selection of keywords is put in a fixed framework in which we try to find both the relation between the words, as well as their autonomous meaning and relevance. This framework is fixed in the sense that it tries to capture ideas which were operative during and around the Second Style, so within a specific timeframe.
The construction of his theories in words, in his essays and project descriptions, are of great, if not essential, importance to the meaning and relevance of his built works.
The houses are physical manifestations of his thinking and fundamental to concretize his, often abstract or ambiguous, words. Through the reflection of text on these houses, we attempt to derive the meaning of his conceptions; the definitions of his vocabulary. The transitions into, and from the Second Style are addressed as an integral part of this exercise.
The conceptions that originated in the First Style have shown to provide a solid foundation for the evolution of his thinking in the Second Style. The conceptions of the Second Style, in their turn, provide a frame of reference to reflect on the shifts that occurred during the introduction of the Third 4 Style.
With this work we want to provide a set of meanings that offer a base to develop further implications on these shifts. Throughout the iterative process of this analysis, the selection of keywords has been modified. Through discussions, we reflected on these meanings and revised them. The goal of this is to be able to present our mutual understanding of the meaning of these keywords, as a product of our work, as well as a tool that can be used, altered or extended.
The open encyclopedia should work as a tool, not only for understanding the meaning of the words and their interrelation, but also for reading the houses within the chosen timeframe. The keywords are strongly linked to his methods of design. We believe that the keywords are in fact, for him, the most essential design tool. This open encyclopedia is an effort, to create an applicable tool for that same purpose. They would fail suiting to contemporary conditions.
The theoretical level can be found in his abstract designing methods. In his first style houses this abstract methods are mostly the fundamental principles of Japanese spatial composition, which he calls the method of dichotomy or division of space, and the method of frontality by creating a space of the gaze.
In the second style houses the degree of abstraction even increased. As a start in his search for neutral space or a space of his own, Shinohara introduce the method of the cube in combination with the fissure space. The compositing method shifted from the traditional division of space towards the non-divided-plan, and verticality, which is not common in traditional Japanese architecture, played now an important role.
Together with the concept of the fissure space, it is an abstraction that belongs particularly to him. However, the cube represents an emancipation regarding this tradition since it is an equal multiface and therefore non frontal volume.
The cube is a pure geometrical volume, with regular angles Shinohara later qualifies a naked form. In the Second Style the cube is the inherent complementary volume to the fissure. In these works, frontality has therefore lost its former vital role. Time and location of the viewer are instead of great importance. Space has taken on a multiple appearance to produce a continuous capturing of space, resulting in a dynamic quality. The extraordinary space is a kind of reintroduction of the irrational, until it moves back into the realm of conventionalities, into the common and rational.
This process of rationalize the irrational changes the world every time a bit. It can be seen as a reflection of a strange Japanese, sociocultural phenomena, in which the gap between the tradition of popular acceptance and the true tradition is revealed. On the one hand it cuts the abstract cubic volume in the middle into two and refers to the bisection and separation of a house interior, on the other hand the fissure space relates to the connection and addition of rooms.
It often contains the stairs or serves as a part of the vertical linking and further more as a powerful visual connection. The fissure space is most widely deliberated from function, character and meaning. This multiple space is dynamic, as it depends on time and the location of the viewer.
This use of a kind of mostly undefined and irrational, but volumetric very clearly definite space can be seen as a vehicle or method to attend to deal with the uncertain, irrational aspects of mans consciousness.
This including of irrational aspects is a way of criticizing the ideologies of functionalists and rationalists as well as metabolists, who denied any importance of undefined function and irrationality.
Shinohara refers to Frontality and Multiple Spaces as modes for composing and reading space. From a specific point, a sequence of space s is conceived by the observer as a whole, at once, thus generating a powerful sense of tension; everything seems to fall into place properly.
The absence of movement emphasizes the static quality of this architecture. From this single point of observation, one can take in at once the whole splendid composition. The main room in House in White shows a similar quality.
The simple rectangular outline of the traditional Japanese floor plan, which Shinohara refers to as Spatial Division, is deeply connected to this Frontality. From the Second Style, there is a fundamental shift in perception of, and the movement through, space. As such, it could scarcely represent the apotheosis of architecture, as Giedion and other modernists hoped to imply. No more do I look forward to a revival of that movement.
I am instead talking about the something new that is being born of the repeated tension and labor involved in the process of developing houses that I have just completed and those that I am currently working on. In Japan Architect, Shinohara criticized the Metabolist movement and denied both the possibility and effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention in cities.
As opposed to the Metabolists, who aspired to create a collective built environment, Shinohara took a more personal and nondogmatic approach to design the house, focusing his work on Man, rather than society. The ideology and method of design should instead conform to the increase of uncertainties. The act of conforming to uncertainties is revealed in a secure spatial form, such as the fissure spaces in the Shino House and Uncompleted House. Shinohara also criticizes design methods by means of a metabolic process.
In his opinion this is not the task of the architect, but rather that of technological society. He insists on creating something eternal, something that can deal with uncertainties rather than, like the Metabolists, attempting to comply with certainties. Instead of a continuation on the traditional Japanese plan, Shinohara intends to make the spaces as abstract as possible. In the First Style Shinohara often started his spatial composition with setting aside the living spaces, the daily life zone, from the main space.
Part of the Multiple Spaces concept is to include the living spaces in the spatial composition, with the goal to give them a more concrete nature. Shinohara now pays more attention to the composition of the living zones to improve the operability of the entire composition. Through this shift to compound, or mixture, spatial composition Shinohara tries to confront and comply to uncertainties.
The perception of space is strongly dependent on the time and location of the observer; Man. The image of space becomes a second-bysecond phenomenon since the spatial construction is taking as its basic pattern disconnected linking. In the Second Style, it seems that Man, the subject gains a more important role for the interpretation of space.
When we look at the presentation of the projects that deal with these Multiple Spaces, we can see a great shift from static to dynamic visual capturing of space. The photographs by Koji Taki show just one of many possibilities or natures of the space. The Fish-eye lens tries to capture this sense of multiplicity. Verticality draws the eye of the observer, Man, and hereby catalyzes the creation of continuity of space. At the end of the Second Style, Shinohara begins to focus on these neutral, cold and dry spatial elements — the cube as a pure geometrical volume or the bearing element — and their association as an opportunity to eventually generate various and unexpected meaning.
And for the category ornamental space, Shinohara cites the European phenomenon of Art Nouveau, which he construes rather simplistically, if understandably from a Japanese point of view, then only as an outgrowth of the Baroque. The geometric pattern created through such an operation becomes a plan of architecture or a house. In 16 no jutaku to kechikeron pp. Tokyo Bijutsu Shuppansha. With the process of spatial division, subdividing void into smaller units, his earlier work rarely took human movement in consideration.
This can be emphasized by the lack of any kind of solely circulation serving spaces, such as corridors or connecting rooms. The result was termed by Shinohara as a static quality, meaning that the architecture dictates the viewpoints instead of the observer, producing a discontinuous series enforcing the notion of frontality. He sets the Pyramids in Eygpt as a significant example, while also admitted that they have such function that actually they cannot be seen as pure symbolic space.
This can first be found in his projects relating to Japanese tradition. To mix the certain as form that encloses uncertainties inherit in humans mind. In his second Style houses the dealing with uncertainty occurs even more. The fissure space confronts the uncertainty of an abstract space with the certainty of the daily-life zones, and shows the mutual reinforcement between the ambiguous effect of the uncertain space and the very concrete nature of the certain.
The inclusion of the uncertain as an irrational value, opposed the idea of the quantitative planning method of standardization and industrial production at the time. Nonetheless, it is more a new feature rather than a significant shift from his will to explore the horizontal expanse of the house.