Samucage The work is scored for solo cello, 2 flutes2 oboes2 clarinets2 bassoons4 horns2 trumpets3 trombonestimpaniharp and strings. It is styled as an Adagio on 2 Hebrew Melodies for Cello and Orchestra with Harp and consists of a series of variations on two nidei themes of Jewish origin. These are the same edition as filesandexcept they have been cropped and rotated to better fit paper size. List of compositions by Max Bruch.
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Form of the chant[ edit ] Kol Nidre chant from the s Kol Nidre from a 19th-century machzor Before sunset on the eve of Yom Kippur "Day of Atonement" , the congregation gathers in the synagogue.
The Ark is opened and two people take from it two Torah scrolls. Then they take their places, one on each side of the cantor , and the three being beth din or rabbinical court recite: By the authority of the Court on High and by authority of the court down here, by the permission of One Who Is Everywhere and by the permission of this congregation, we hold it lawful to pray with sinners.
This invitation to outcasts is not specifically for Kol Nidre but for the whole of the Day of Atonement, it being obvious that when even sinners join in repenting, the occasion is worthy of Divine clemency. Let them all be relinquished and abandoned, null and void, neither firm nor established. Let our vows, pledges and oaths be considered neither vows nor pledges nor oaths. The leader then says: "O pardon the iniquities of this people, according to Thy abundant mercy, just as Thou forgave this people ever since they left Egypt.
The Torah scrolls are then put back in the Ark, and the customary evening service begins. The vows and pledges being annulled by this ceremony are of a limited category.
As the ArtScroll Mahzor explains it: "There is a dangerous and erroneous misconception among some people that the Kol Nidrei nullification of vows—whether past or future— This is not the case. The Kol Nidrei declaration can invalidate only vows that one undertakes on his own volition. It has no effect on vows or oath imposed by someone else, or a court. Also, the invalidation of future vows takes effect only if someone makes the vow without having in mind his previous Kol Nidrei declaration.
But if he makes the vow with Kol Nidrei in mind—thus being openly insincere in his vow—the vow is in full force. Though the context makes it perfectly obvious that no vows or obligations towards others are implied, there have been many who were misled into believing that by means of this formula all their vows and oaths are annulled. Kol Nidrei is not a prayer, it makes no requests and is not addressed to God, rather, it is a juristic declaration before the Yom Kippur prayers begin. It follows the juridical practice of requiring three men as a tribunal, the procedure beginning before sundown, and of the proclamation being announced three times.
You must fulfill what has crossed your lips and perform what you have voluntarily vowed to the L ORD your God, having made the promise with your own mouth. Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur As one commentary puts it, "it is considered a fearsome sin for one to violate his vows and oaths and the Sages regard it as an extremely serious matter for one to approach the Days of Judgment [meaning the High Holy Days] with such violation in hand.
This is in accordance with the older text of the formula as it is preserved in the Siddur of Amram Gaon. This may have encouraged the geonim leaders of early medieval Babylonian Jewry to minimize the power of dispensation. Thus the Kol Nidre was discredited in both of the Babylonian academies and was not accepted by them.
But the geonic practice of not reciting the Kol Nidre was long prevalent; it has never been adopted in the Catalan or in the Algerian ritual, nor in the French regions of Carpentras or Avignon.
From Germany this custom spread to southern France, Spain, Greece, and probably to northern France, and was in time generally adopted. At one time it was widely believed that the Kol Nidre was composed by Spanish " Marranos ", Jews who were forced to convert to Christianity , yet who secretly maintained their original faith.
This idea has been shown to be incorrect, as the prayer pre-dates this era circa 15th century by many centuries. However, this prayer was indeed used by the Marranos and it is possible that its great significance and wide usage derives from this persecution. A very different reason for Kol Nidre was suggested by the Zohar ; God has already threatened and vowed terrible punishments upon the Jewish people for their sins, but by our own demonstration that we can unbind ourselves from vows using Kol Nidre we hope to persuade God to similarly annul His own vows of calamity.
By reciting the Kol Nidre annulment of vows at this time, we are asking of God that He favor us by annuling any negative decrees of judgment that await us, even though we are undeserving of such annulment. The tribunal responds by reciting three times, "May everything be permitted you, may everything be forgiven you, may everything be allowed you. There does not exist any vow, oath, But there does exist pardon, forgiveness, and atonement.
It is believed that Kol Nidrei was added to the liturgy of Yom Kippur, ten days after Rosh Hashana, because that service is much more solemn, because the Day of Atonement is entirely attuned to the theme of repentance and remorse, because despite the great importance of Rosh Hashana Yom Kippur services are better attended, and perhaps because Yom Kippur itself is once referred to as Rosh Hashana in Scripture Ezekiel Such reasons were enumerated by, among others, Asher ben Jehiel early 14th century.
Thus, the dispensation was not a posteriori and concerning unfulfilled obligations of the past year, but was a priori , making reference to vows one might not be able to fulfill or might forget to observe during the ensuing year.
Meir ben Samuel likewise added the words "we do repent of them all", since real repentance is a condition of dispensation. The reasons for this change were that an " ex post facto " annulment of a vow was meaningless and, furthermore, that no one might grant to himself a dispensation, which might be given only by a board of three laymen or by a competent judge. Additionally, the Talmudic discussion of annulment of vows speaks of negating vows to be made in the future.
It was Rabbeinu Tam , however, who accounted for the alteration made by his father, as already stated, and who also tried to change the perfect tense of the verbs "which we have vowed", "have sworn", etc. Whether the old text was already too deeply rooted, or whether Rabbeinu Tam did not correct these verbal forms consistently and grammatically, the old perfect forms are still retained at the beginning of the formula, but a future meaning is given to them.
The old and new versions are sometimes found side by side. Both Hebrew versions refer to vows of the year just concluded, rather than vows made in the coming year. The two Hebrew versions are slightly different from each other. The words "as it is written in the teachings of Moses, thy servant", which were said in the old form before the quotation of Numbers , were canceled by Meir of Rothenburg.
In some places it was one; in others, two, three, seven, or even all that the synagogue possesses. The first Torah-scroll taken out is called the Sefer Kol Nidrei. Kol Nidrei should be recited before sunset, since dispensation from a vow may not be granted on the Sabbath or on a feast-day, unless the vow refers to one of these days.
All of them are undone, abandoned, cancelled, null and void, not in force, and not in effect. Our vows are no longer vows, and our prohibitions are no longer prohibitions, and our oaths are no longer oaths. This is immediately followed by the recitation of the Biblical verse in Hebrew rather than Aramaic , Numbers , "The whole community of the Children of Israel, and the proselyte dwelling among them, shall be forgiven, for all of them were without premeditation.
These terms are almost exclusively religious pledges of various kinds: That something will be done or not done or given in exchange for a prayer being answered, that something will be done or not done for religious purposes or to show religious devotion, that a thing will be used only for religious purposes e. Such vows, it is obvious, are sometimes made impulsively or in moments of panic, desperation or some other strong emotion, and would be impossible, impractical, or ruinous to fulfill. It has even been suggested that Kol Nidrei includes vows that had been fulfilled, because the Torah forbids the making of vows, so that even those which were kept required atonement.
There is also a kabbalistic or spiritual purpose to Kol Nidrei: God has vowed, in Scripture, to punish Jewry for its sins; therefore by demonstrating that we can and do cancel our own vows, we hope to induce God to cancel His own dire decrees. We made promises and pledges to God, often at a peak feeling of devotion or gratitude—or of desperation, but our good intentions are short-lived, and we allowed the promises to slip from our attention.
As early as in the Disputation of Paris, Yechiel of Paris was obliged to defend Kol Nidrei against these charges. Ismar Elbogen said in his monumental study of Jewish Liturgy: It is well known how many baseless accusations the text of [Kol Nidre] has aroused against Jews in the course of centuries. But nowhere in the sources can any interpretation of a morally offensive nature be found, for the [rabbinic] authorities agree unanimously that the text has in view only obligations undertaken by an individual toward himself or obligations respecting cultic regulations of the community.
No vow, promise, or oath that concerns another person, a court of justice, or a community is implied in Kol Nidrei. It does not matter if a vow was made to one or more non-Jews, such a vow cannot be annulled. Not all vows or oaths could be absolved. A vow or oath that was made to another person, even be that person a child or a heathen, could not be annulled except in the presence of that person and with his consent; while an oath which a man had taken in a court of justice could not be absolved by any other authority in the world.
As pointed out above, many rabbis state that the vows referred to are applicable only to the individual, and not interpersonally. Moreover, the Biblical verse quoted at the end clearly refers to vows that were unintentionally unkept, not premeditatedly broken. In fact, the reverse is true: Jews cherish this ritual because they take vows so seriously that they consider themselves bound even if they make the vows under duress or in times of stress when not thinking straight.
This ritual gave comfort to those who were forcibly converted to Christianity, yet felt unable to break their vow to follow Christianity. In recognition of that history, the Reform movement restored this recitation to its liturgy. Even so early[ clarification needed ] an authority as Saadia Gaon early 10th century wished to restrict it to those vows extorted from the congregation in the synagogue in times of persecution "Kol Bo" , and he declared explicitly that the "Kol Nidre" gave no absolution from oaths an individual took during the year.
Libowitz , Leon Modena, p. Reform in the 19th century[ edit ] Yielding to the numerous accusations and complaints brought against "Kol Nidrei" in the course of centuries, the rabbinical conference held at Brunswick in decided unanimously that the formula was not essential, and that the members of the convention should exert their influence toward securing its speedy abolition.
Naturally there were many Orthodox opponents of this innovation, among whom M. Lehmann, editor of the Israelit, was especially prominent. In , Rabbi Leopold Stein who later became the Rabbi of Frankfurt on Main published a volume of German language prayers and hymns offered as additions or alternatives to the traditional ones, and for a substitute for Kol Nidre he provided the hymn apparently his own work , "O Tag des Herrn! As Joseph H. Hertz put it:  [Kol Nidre] has been fortunate in the melody to which it is traditionally chanted.
It fulfils the counsel offered by Judah the Pious in the thirteenth century, "chant your supplications to God in a melody that makes the heart weep, and your praises of Him in one that will make it sing. Thus you will be filled with love and joy for Him that seeth the heart. It is commonly said that the tune for Kol Nidre is missinai - unchanged since Moses climbed down from Mount Sinai  - In the early 17th century, Rabbi Mordechai Jaffe of Prague , known as the Levush, mentioned that all cantors knew a set melody which was traditional for Kol Nidre.
So marked is the variation in the details of the melody that a critical examination of the variants shows an approach toward agreement in the essentials of the first strain only, with transformations of the greatest diversity in the remaining strains.
These divergences, however, are not radical, and they are no more than are inherent in a composition not due to a single originator, but built up and elaborated by many in turn, and handed on by them in distinct lines of tradition, along all of which the rhapsodical method of the hazzanut has been followed. The musical structure of the Ashkenazi Kol Nidrei is built upon a simple groundwork, the melody being an intermingling of simple cantillation with rich figuration. The opening of Kol Nidre is what the masters of the Catholic plain-song term a " pneuma ", or soul breath.
Instead of announcing the opening words in a monotone or in any of the familiar declamatory phrases, a hazzan of South Germany prefixed a long, sighing tone, falling to a lower note and rising again, as if only sighs and sobs could find utterance before the officiant could bring himself to inaugurate the Day of Atonement. An older coincidence shows the original element around which the whole of Kol Nidre has been built up.
The pneuma given in the Sarum and Ratisbon antiphonaries or Roman Catholic ritual music-books as a typical passage in the first Gregorian mode or the notes in the natural scale running from "d" to "d" ["re" to "re"] , almost exactly outlines the figure that prevails throughout the Hebrew air, in all its variants, and reproduces one favorite strain with still closer agreement.
The original pattern of these phrases seems to be the strain of melody so frequently repeated in the modern versions of Kol Nidre at the introduction of each clause. Such a pattern phrase, indeed, is, in the less elaborated Italian tradition, repeated in its simple form five times consecutively in the first sentence of the text, and a little more elaborately four times in succession from the words "nidrana lo nidre". The northern traditions prefer at such points first to utilize its complement in the second ecclesiastical mode of the Church, which extends below as well as above the fundamental "re".
The strain, in either form, must obviously date from the early medieval period, anterior to the 11th century, when the practice and theory of the singing-school at St. Gall, by which such typical passages were evolved, influenced all music in those French and German lands where the melody of Kol Nidre took shape. Thus, then, a typical phrase in the most familiar Gregorian mode, such as was daily in the ears of the Rhenish Jews, in secular as well as in ecclesiastical music, was centuries ago deemed suitable for the recitation of the Absolution of Vows, and to it was afterward prefixed an introductory intonation dependent on the taste and capacity of the officiant.
Many times repeated, the figure of this central phrase was sometimes sung on a higher degree of the scale, sometimes on a lower. Then these became associated; and so gradually the middle section of the melody developed into the modern forms. Inspiration for other musical pieces[ edit ] The prayer and its melody has been the basis of a number of pieces of classical music , including a setting of the prayer by Arnold Schoenberg , a piece for solo cello and orchestra by Max Bruch , a string quartet by John Zorn , and others.
The Electric Prunes album Release of An Oath , subtitled and commonly called The Kol Nidre after the title of its first and thematically most central track, is based on a combination of Christian and Jewish liturgy.
Bruch - Kol Nidrei (Full Version) sheet music for Viola
Kol Nidrei, Op. 47