80196 ARCHITECTURE PDF

The following image shows the basic components of a Microcontroller. As all the components and a few other components are integrated on a single chip Integrated Circuit — IC , a Microcontroller can be considered as a Microcomputer or a Computer on — chip. It is usually implemented as Read Only Memory or ROM, where the Program written in to it will be retained even when the power is down or the system is reset. In this type of memory, the data can be erased and reprogrammed using special programming signals. When the microcontroller is powered on or manually reset, the processor executes a set of instructions from a pre-defined memory location address in the Program Memory.

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The following image shows the basic components of a Microcontroller. As all the components and a few other components are integrated on a single chip Integrated Circuit — IC , a Microcontroller can be considered as a Microcomputer or a Computer on — chip.

It is usually implemented as Read Only Memory or ROM, where the Program written in to it will be retained even when the power is down or the system is reset. In this type of memory, the data can be erased and reprogrammed using special programming signals. When the microcontroller is powered on or manually reset, the processor executes a set of instructions from a pre-defined memory location address in the Program Memory.

Data Memory Data Memory in a Microcontroller is responsible for storing values of variables, temporary data, intermediate results and other data for proper operation of the program. It is generally organized as registers and includes both Special Function Registers SFRs and user accessible memory locations.

Input Ports provide a gateway for passing on the data from the outside world with the help of sensors. The data from the input ports is manipulated depending on the application and will determine the data on the output port. Output Ports allow microcontroller to control external devices like motors and LEDs. Generally, all ports in microcontrollers have dual functionality i. Clock Generator Oscillator A clock signal allows the operations inside the microcontroller and other parts to be synchronous.

We try to understand the different features of the device like Motor RPM, load capacity and Power Consumption, in case of a washing machine. This is applicable even in our case i.

In the next section, we will see the Microcontroller Architecture and few of its important features. Irrespective of the manufacturer, the internal hardware design i.

The following image shows the Microcontroller Architecture in a block diagram style. All these different peripherals inside the Microcontroller will communicate with each other via the 8 — bit Data Bus, also known as the internal data bus. Now, we will see the features of the Microcontroller Architecture. The higher Bytes of the RAM i. Interrupts: Two External and Three Internal. Oscillator and Clock Circuit. In this tutorial, we have seen a brief note on the Microcontroller Architecture.

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The also had on-chip program memory lacking in the Ford created the Ford Microelectronics facility in Colorado Springs in to propagate the EEC-IV family, develop other custom circuits for use in automobiles, and to explore the gallium arsenide integrated circuit market. Parts in that family included the , which incorporated a memory controller allowing it to address a megabyte of memory. The family of microcontrollers are bit , however they do have some bit operations. The processors operate at 16, 20, 25, and 50 MHz , and is separated into 3 smaller families. The main features of the MCS family include a large on-chip memory, Register-to-register architecture , three operand instructions, bus controller to allow 8 or 16 bit bus widths, and direct flat addressability of large blocks or more of registers.

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