AFFECTIVE FILTER KRASHEN PDF

It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. A deductive approach in a teacher-centered setting produces "learning", while an inductive approach in a student-centered setting leads to "acquisition". The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. They focus on form or think about correctness. They know the rule.

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It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. A deductive approach in a teacher-centered setting produces "learning", while an inductive approach in a student-centered setting leads to "acquisition". The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar.

They focus on form or think about correctness. They know the rule. It appears that the role of conscious learning is somewhat limited in second language performance. Usually extroverts are under-users, while introverts and perfectionists are over-users. Lack of self-confidence is frequently related to the over-use of the "monitor".

See here an enlightening video by Krashen about comprehensible input. Your browser does not support the video tag. These variables include: motivation, self-confidence, anxiety and personality traits. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, a low level of anxiety and extroversion are better equipped for success in second language acquisition.

On the other hand, positive affect is necessary, but not sufficient on its own, for acquisition to take place. For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies.

In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition. Any benefit, however, will greatly depend on the learner being already familiar with the language. It should also be clear that analizing the language, formulating rules, setting irregularities apart, and teaching complex facts about the target language is not language teaching, but rather is "language appreciation" or linguistics, which does not lead to communicative proficiency.

The only instance in which the teaching of grammar can result in language acquisition and proficiency is when the students are interested in the subject and the target language is used as a medium of instruction. Very often, when this occurs, both teachers and students are convinced that the study of formal grammar is essential for second language acquisition, and the teacher is skillful enough to present explanations in the target language so that the students understand.

This is a subtle point. In effect, both teachers and students are deceiving themselves. They believe that it is the subject matter itself, the study of grammar, that is responsible for the students progress, but in reality their progress is coming from the medium and not the message. Any subject matter that held their interest would do just as well.

Cambridge University Press, Krashen, Stephen D. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice-Hall International,

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Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition

It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. It appears that the role of conscious learning is somewhat limited in second language performance. Usually extroverts are under-users, while introverts and perfectionists are over-users. It goes beyond the choice of words and involves presentation of context, explanation, rewording of unclear parts, the use of visual cues and meaning negotiation. The meaning successfully conveyed constitutes the learning experience.

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONS STEVE SHIPSIDE PDF

Affective filter hypothesis

How low can you go? The lower the filter, the higher the success! If you are not already familiar with the concept of the affective filter, allow me to illustrate what it is. Imagine you have recently moved to a new community where everything is unfamiliar. You have left behind many of your close friends and family members. The food is strange and a bit distasteful.

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