BENGALI CALENDAR 1422 PDF

Further information: Hindu calendar Some historians attribute the Bengali calendar to the 7th century Hindu king Shashanka. However, unlike these regions where it starts in 57 BC, the Bengali calendar starts from suggesting that the starting reference year was adjusted at some point. For example, Buddhist texts and inscriptions created in the Pala Empire era mention "Vikrama" and the months such as Ashvin , a system found in Sanskrit texts elsewhere in ancient and medieval Indian subcontinent. These calculations about the sun appears in various Sanskrit astronomical texts in Sanskrit , such as the 5th century Aryabhatiya by Aryabhata , the 6th century Romaka by Latadeva and Panca Siddhantika by Varahamihira, the 7th century Khandakhadyaka by Brahmagupta and the 8th century Sisyadhivrddida by Lalla. It retains the historic Sanskrit names of the months, with the first month as Baishakh.

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Bengali Calendar The Bangla Calendar or Bangla calendar may refer to the sidereal solar used by the Bangla people in their calendar officially used in Bangladesh. The year begins on Pohela Boishakh, which falls on 14 April according to the tropical calendar in Bangladesh. It is similar to Hindu Calendar. The new calendar was initially known as Tarikh-e-Elahi and was introduced on 10 or 11 March The Mughal emperors had been using the Hijri calendar for the purposes of collecting revenue.

However, as Abul Fazl explains in Akbar Namah, the use of the Hijri calendar was irksome to the peasantry because there was a difference of 11 or 12 days between the lunar and the solar years, with 31 lunar years being equal to 30 solar years. Revenue was collected according to the lunar year, whereas the harvest was dependent on the solar one.

From the beginning of his reign, Akbar had felt the need of introducing a uniform, scientific, and workable system of calculating days and months through a reformed calendar. With this end in view, he commissioned Amir Fathullah Shirazi, a distinguished scientist and astronomer, to make the changes. Accordingly, the first of muharram AH was also made the starting point of of Tarikh-e-Elahi. Since the month of Muharram AH coincided with the month of Baishakh, the month of Baisakh was made the first month of the new era instead of the month of Chaitra which was the first month of the shakabda, then being used in Bengal.

During the four hundred odd years that have elapsed since the Tarikh-e-Elahi was promulgated, a difference of 14 years has arisen between the Hijri and Bangla calendars. The Islamic Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar while the Bangla calendar is a solar one. The lunar year is 11 days shorter than the solar year. Hence the difference that has arisen between the Hijri calendar and the Bangla one: is of the Bangla year but of the Hijri year. The difference between the Bangla year and the Gregorian year, both of which are solar years, has remained the same.

During the reign of Akbar, each day of the month used to have a different name. His seven days of the week are similar to the week in the western calendar, with the Bangla week also starting from Sunday. The names of the months of the year were also changed. It is not known why the months were given the names Baisakh, Jyaistha, etc, but it is presumed that the names were derived from the Shakabda which had been introduced in 78 AD to commemorate the reign of the Saka Dynasty.

However, the actual time taken by the earth in its revolution around the sun is days 5 hours 48 minutes and 47 seconds. To make up this discrepancy, the Gregorian calendar adds an extra day to the month of February every fourth year except in century years not divisible by The Bangla year did not take into account these extra hours. Bangla months too were of different lengths. In order to counter this discrepancy and make the Bangla calendar more precise, a committee to reform the Bangla calendar was set up on 17 February under the auspices of the bangla academy and under the guidance of muhammad shahidullah.

Under the recommendations of the committee, the months from Baisakh to Bhadra were to be counted as of 31 days each, while the months from Asvin to Chaitra were to be considered as of 30 days, with Chaitra having 31 days every four years. According to the popular hypotheses about the beginning of Bengali calendar, Mughal Emperor Akbar, who ruled from CE until CE, and one of his councilors Fatehullah Shirazi are credited with introducing the new Bengali calendar for tax collection purposes.

Before the introduction of the Bengali calendar, during Muslim rule in India agricultural and land taxes were collected according to the Islamic Hijri calendar.

However, as the Hijri Calendar is a lunar calendar, the agricultural year did not always coincide with the fiscal year. Therefore, farmers were hard-pressed to pay taxes out of season. In order to streamline tax collection, Emperor Akbar ordered a reform of the calendar. Accordingly, Amir Fatehullah Shirazi, a renowned scholar of the time and the royal astronomer, formulated a new calendar based on the lunar Hijri and solar Hindu calendars.

The resulting Bangla calendar was introduced following the harvesting season when the peasantry would be in a relatively sound financial position. During the reign of the Mughals, the Bengali Calendar was officially implemented throughout the empire. The month-names continued to be as per Hindu-astrological nomenclature. Akbar did not start the Bengali calendar with a value 1, but instead jump-started it with the then existing [Hijri calendar] value.

Another study suggests, Bengali calendar actually might have started with a value one during the reign of King Shashaanka of ancient Bengal, who ruled approximately between CE and CE. The king is credited with starting the Bengali era. The starting point of the Bengali era is estimated to be on Monday, 12 April in the Julian Calendar and Monday, 14 April in the proleptic Gregorian calendar.

The Bengali calendar is derived from the Hindu]. But as the traditional calendar used in India is sidereal, it does not correspond to the actual tropical movement of the earth. Hence, after some centuries the months will shift far away from the actual seasons.

But the reformed tropical version of the calendar used in Bangladesh will continue to maintain the seasons as mentioned above. These names were derived from the Surya Siddhanta, an ancient Indian book on Astronomy. The length of a year in the Bengali calendar, as in the Gregorian calendar, is counted as days.

To make up this discrepancy, the Gregorian calendar adds an extra day, to make a leap year, to the month of February every fourth year except in years divisible by but not by The Bengali calendar, which was based on astronomical calculations, did not make this extra leap year adjustment. Bengali months, too, were of different lengths. To counter this discrepancy, and to make the Bengali calendar more precise, the following recommendations of the Bangla Academy are followed: The first five months of the year from Boishakh to Bhadro will consist of 31 days each.

The remaining seven months of the year from Ashshin to Choitro will consist of 30 days each. In every leap year of the Gregorian calendar, an additional day will be added in the month of Falgun, which is just 14 days after 29 February. Modified without material change.

The revised calendar was officially adopted in Bangladesh in However, it is not followed in the neighbouring state of West Bengal, India, where the traditional calendar continues to be followed due to the deep bond of Hindu culture with the Bengali calendar. Hindu religious festivals are celebrated based on a particular lunar day and Bengali calendar combination. However, since the calendar was revised in Bangladesh the new year now always falls on 14 April.

In West Bengal, India, the Bengalis follow a sidereal solar calendar unlike the Tropical year solar calendars, such as the revised Bengali and Gregorian Calendars. The mathematical difference between the sidereal and the tropical calendars accounts for the difference of starting the new year in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. Because of this the length of the months are also not fixed in the Bengali sidereal calendar, but rather are based on the true movement of the sun.

Leap Year Although the sidereal solar calendar is followed in West Bengal, India, the number of days in the months are determined by the true motion of the Sun through the zodiac. In this calendar, seven is subtracted from the year, and the result is divided by There are 10 leap years in every 39 years, although an extraordinary revision may be required over a long time.

To keep pace with the Gregorian calendar, the Bengali leap years are those whose corresponding Gregorian calendar year is counted as a leap year. For example, Falgun was considered a Bengali leap month, as it fell during the Gregorian leap month of February Usage The usage and popularity of the Bengali calendar in eastern South Asia is partly due to its adaptation to the unique seasonal patterns of the region.

Eastern South Asia has a climate that is best divided into six seasons, including the monsoon or rainy season and the dry season in addition to spring, summer, fall, and winter.

In everyday use, the Bengali Calendar has been largely replaced by the Gregorian Calendar in Bengali-speaking regions, although it is still essential for marking holidays specific to Bengali culture e. The Bengali calendar is recognized by the government of Bangladesh, whose offices date all their correspondence with the Bengali date as well as the Gregorian one. Many newspapers in Bangladesh also add a third date, following the Islamic Hijri Calendar. Thus, it is quite common in Bangladesh to find the date written three times e.

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