CECORA 1620 PDF

Both sides began preparing for war, as neither was quite ready for it at the time. The Ottomans declared war against Poland in and planned to attack in the spring of The army entered Moldavia in September. The Moldavian ruler, hospodar Gaspar Graziani , nominally a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, decided to rebel and support the Commonwealth against the Ottomans.

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Edit Because of the failure of Commonwealth diplomatic mission to Constantinople, and violations of the Treaty of Busza by both sides as Cossacks and Tatars continued their raids across the borders , relations between the Ottomans and the Commonwealth rapidly deteriorated in early Both sides began preparing for war, as neither was quite ready for it at the time.

The Ottomans planned for a war in , while the Commonwealth Sejm denied most funds the hetmans had asked for. The army entered Moldavia in September. The Moldavian ruler, hospodar Gaspar Graziani , nominally a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, decided to rebel and support the Commonwealth against the Ottomans.

Consequently, only about — rebel Moldavian troops appeared in the Commonwealth camp. This force had been sent by the Ottoman Sultan to help Gabriel Bethlen in his struggle against the Habsburgs. The Tatar forces surprised the Commonwealth defenders, taking many prisoners. During the first day of fighting the 18th , most of the rebel Moldavians decided to switch sides and quickly attacked the Polish flank.

Mercenaries, private troops and their magnate leaders were lacking in discipline and morale. On 29 September Commonwealth troops had broken through Ottoman ranks with tabor wagon trains and started their retreat. However, after Graziani bribed some magnates, units of private troops begun to flee and some mercenary cavalry panicked and also ran.

This was a prelude of things to come. Consecutive attacks during the retreat including a particularly violent one on 3 October were repelled, but troop units started disintegrating as soon as soldiers caught sight of the Dniester and the Polish border.

During another heavy assault on 6 October, most of the magnates and nobles broke and fled north, leaving infantry and camp, thus sealing the fate of the whole expedition: most of the Polish troops were killed or captured. The Ottomans, following their victory in the Battle of Cecora, had high hopes of conquering Ukraine, at the time a part of Poland. Polish commander Jan Karol Chodkiewicz crossed the Dniester in September with approximately 35, Polish troops and Cossack supporters and entrenched himself at the Khotyn Fortress , blocking the path of the slow Ottoman march.

A few days before the siege was to be lifted, the aged grand hetman died of exhaustion in the fortress 24 September The battle was a stalemate and the resulting Treaty of Khotyn reflected it, providing some concessions to the Commonwealth but meeting some Ottoman demands.

His efforts at modernizing the Ottoman army were not well received by the Janissaries and the conservative "learned" class. I, ed. I, See also.

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Battle of Cecora (1620)

La battaglia di Cecora chiuse una volta per tutte le intromissioni polacco-lituane nella gestione ottomana del Principato di Moldavia v. Закончилась поражением коронного войска. В году великий коронный гетман Жолкевский, рассчитывая на помощь молдавского князя Гаспера Грациани, двинулся против турок с бойцами. С турецкой стороны Искандер-паша привёл с собой 10 тыс.

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