I hoped the book would be an in-depth look at where innumeracy stems from and how to prevent it. He mentions standard things like poor math education, psychological blocks like "math anxiety", and popular misconceptions that math is just cold spiritless arithmetic. He does propose a few solutions here and there, like getting more non-mathematicians writing about math and highlighting the warmth and passion of the subject to get rid of negative stereotypes But I do really like his idea of placing more emphasis on estimation in schools, and especially that people should build personal mental libraries of collections of things for every power of 10 up to at least a trillion. In other words, you should be able to visualize how many is a thousand of something vs a million of something vs a trillion of something. For example, the stadium in our town seats 1, people; a wall nearby has 10, bricks; etc.

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I hoped the book would be an in-depth look at where innumeracy stems from and how to prevent it. He mentions standard things like poor math education, psychological blocks like "math anxiety", and popular misconceptions that math is just cold spiritless arithmetic. He does propose a few solutions here and there, like getting more non-mathematicians writing about math and highlighting the warmth and passion of the subject to get rid of negative stereotypes But I do really like his idea of placing more emphasis on estimation in schools, and especially that people should build personal mental libraries of collections of things for every power of 10 up to at least a trillion.

In other words, you should be able to visualize how many is a thousand of something vs a million of something vs a trillion of something. For example, the stadium in our town seats 1, people; a wall nearby has 10, bricks; etc. It would be handy for people to be able to judge for themselves whether or not a number cited in the newspaper is realistic.

Another cool idea is his logarithmic risk scale or safety scale. If only 1 in 5 million US kids is kidnapped each year, the safety index is a much higher 6. If newspapers and TV started to use this kind of scale, it would be an easier way for people to compare the relative risk of various activities. So the fact that this has occasionally happened to you or someone you know should not be surprising in the least.

The author goes on to bash more pseudoscience in detail; I agree with him but doubt that anybody who believes that stuff in the first place is going to be convinced otherwise by something as simple as facts and math. Anyway, reasonable people often believe total crap too. It cracks me up that, at one point, phrenological exams were commonly a precondition of employment in big corporations! That only applies to the ratio - the absolute difference between number of heads and number of tails is NOT guaranteed to approach zero.

So if Harry is betting heads and Tom is betting tails, and after the first tosses Harry just happens to be ahead 60 to 40, Harry is likely to stay ahead for a long time. Another good section is about reward and punishment. This is called regression to the mean. And indeed it makes sense that this kind of play is exactly what you do when solving math problems or coming up with proofs. See, Katie?

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## John Allen Paulos

He is a writer and speaker on mathematics and the importance of mathematical literacy. He argues for scientific notation being a clearer way to work with larger numbers. The ability to put numbers large and small in the correct context is key to understanding them in an intelligent way. Probability and Coincidence.

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## Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences

In an interview he described himself as lifelong skeptic. He was also part of the Peace Corps in the seventies. John Allen Paulos, Innumeracy The most amazing coincidence of all would be the complete absence of all coincidences. John Allen Paulos, "Irreligion" His academic work is mainly in mathematical logic and probability theory.

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