A woodcut of Pacioli which appears throughout the Summa de arithmetica  Luca Pacioli was born between and in the Tuscan town of Sansepolcro where he received an abbaco education. This was education in the vernacular i. His father was Bartolomeo Pacioli; however, Luca Pacioli was said to have lived with the Befolci family as a child in his birth town Sansepolcro. It was during this period that he wrote his first book, a treatise on arithmetic for the boys he was tutoring.
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In , the public awareness of the association grew when the book was turned into a movie starring veteran actor Tom Hanks. As of this writing in , no English translation is available. In the book, Pacioli writes of mathematical and artistic proportion, especially the mathematics of the golden ratio and its application in art and architecture.
Some geometric solids, such as dodecahedrons and icosahedrons, have inherent golden ratios in their dimensions and spatial positions of their intersecting lines. Other examples of golden ratios in the illustrations include the one architectural illustration in the book and the one script letter G that is not divided horizontally at its midpoint.
On the first page of De Divina Proportione, Pacioli states that his intent is to reveal to artists the secret of harmonic forms through the use of the Divine proportion, describing his writing as: A work necessary for all the clear-sighted and inquiring human minds, in which everyone who loves to study philosophy, perspective, painting, sculpture, architecture, music and other mathematical disciplines will find a very delicate, subtle and admirable teaching and will delight in diverse questions touching on a very secret science.
The paintings I reviewed suggest that the use of the Divine proportion in paintings among Renaissance artists may have been more common in paintings of special religious significance.
It appears to be the basis for the dimensions of the walls and entry way of the courtyard, as well other elements of the composition, as shown in the photos below. Other golden ratios can be found, but to avoid any perception that this is arbitrary those shown are based on very distinct features of the painting. Golden ratios based on width of painting canvas, using Florence Museum image. Note alignment of vertical walls and courtyard entry.
Golden ratios from left side to precise center of canvas, which aligns with the mountain peak. Various design and architectural features show very clear golden ratios.
Some believe that even the positions of the disciples around the table were placed in divine proportions to Jesus. This painting was begun in about and work on it continued for years.
There are, however, observations that can be made about the Mona Lisa. The image on the left below shows that golden ratios from the sides of the canvas. This approach reveals no golden ratios from the canvas edges that align with key elements of the composition. There may still be golden ratios here though. The width of her face is very close to a golden ratio of the width of the canvas.
This is illustrated by the yellow rectangle of the same dimensions. In the image on the right, we see that her eye is rather precisely aligned with the center of the canvas.
Golden ratio lines from the center of the painting to the sides of the canvas align nicely with the width of her hair.
There may also be golden ratios in the vertical dimensions of the painting. As with the painting of Christ above, the most prominent elements of the composition are her head, the garment neck line and her arm. These also show golden ratios in their positioning. So, while this is not as definitive as the straight lines of architectural elements in other paintings, a reasonable case can be made that the Mona Lisa also embodies intentional golden ratio proportions in its composition.
Vitruvius described the human figure as being the principal source of proportion among the Classical orders of architecture. Vitruvius determined that the ideal body should be eight heads high. The Wikipedia article describes how Vitruvio measured the entire human body in integer fractions of the height of a man. Examination of the Vitruvian man illustration shows that the guide lines drawn by Da Vinci on the body appear to be based on integer fractions of the height, which is also equal to its width.
This aligns with the guide lines drawn horizontally at the collar bone, chest, genitals and knee. They align horizontally with the guide lines drawn at the wrist, elbow and shoulder.
Examination supports that Vitruvian Man was drawn to represent the fractional measures put forth by Vitruvius and is not based on the golden ratio. As discussed on the Great Pyramid page, however, irrational numbers like Phi can be closely approximated with integer fractions.
So while Vitruvian Man may produce a very well proportioned human body, it seems unlikely that the human form would be based on a system of halfs, 4ths, 6ths, 7ths, 8ths and 10ths when we find constant rates of fractal expansion in the proportions of other living organisms.
Other studies and approaches to measuring the human body express it just as well or better in golden ratio, which is better aligned to the growth relationships found in nature.
The Vitruvian Man does have some dimensions that align with golden ratios. Golden ratios are easy to identify and apply with simple tools Divine proportions are quite easy for an artist to apply. All it takes is a simple two prong gauge that pivots at its golden ratio point.
You take a measure on one side and then simply flip it around to get the golden ratio of that measure. Another popular design is the three prong gauge. In this case the golden ratio appears in a single line. Tools like this would provide very good estimates of golden ratio points, but are of course only as accurate as the precision of placement of their pivot points.
They would not, in general, be as accurate as the pixel level analysis of those images as done in this article. This would explain some of the minor variations where the composition lines on a painting do not match the digital grid to the pixel.
He may have used it in many more paintings than those shown above. Many paintings though do not have distinct reference lines like those in these paintings, so it is difficult to support. While golden ratios may exist in elements of his other paintings, finding them after the fact can be subject to creative interpretation, and thus can be arbitrary and incorrect. History has shown though that there will continue to be differences in viewpoints.
If you have doubts, my recommendation is to do the analysis for yourself with high resolution images and a tool like PhiMatrix that creates golden ratios, custom ratios and rulers with pixel-level accuracy.
Da Vinci and the Divine Proportion in Art Composition